The “Arab Spring”

Ajami, Fouad. “The Arab Spring At One.” Foreign Affairs 91.2 (2012): 56. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 11 Dec. 2013.
The essay discusses the 2011 Arab Spring, a series of revolutions throughout the Arab world, and its implication for international relations. The role of Islamic sectarianism in the outbreak of these revolutions is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the revolt in Egypt, where conservative religious groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood retain great power.

Ajami, Fouad. “The Arab Spring At One.” World Politics 13/14. [S.l.]: Mcgraw-Hill, 2013. 29-32. Print.  [Edited version] [Amazon]

Anderson, Jon Lee. “The Implosion.” New Yorker 88.2 (2012): 58. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses the conflict within Syria as of February 27, 2012 between supporters of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and those who want his removal from power including the Free Syrian Army. An overview of the religious character of the conflict is provided, with Alawites and Christians supporting the government and Sunnis supporting the rebels. Also presented is the Syrian military involvement in Syrian cities including Homs, Rankous and Zabadani.

Anderson, Lisa. “Demystifying The Arab Spring.” Foreign Affairs 90.3 (2011): 2. MAS Ultra –School Edition. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.
An article is presented that reports on revolutions in Arab countries in the spring of 2011. The article describes social and political uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya and the demonstrations held by activists. The article discusses the demographics of the protesters, noting that Egypt’s uprising was led by urban youth while the Libyan revolt was led by armed rebels. Information is provided on former Tunisian President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali, ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, and Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi.

Asfour, Lana. “A Very Modern Conflict.” New Statesman 142.5163 (2013): 13. MAS Ultra –School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article examines a history of the Syrian begun in 2011 that has lasted until 2013, focusing on the causes of the revolution and the refugee population that the conflict has created. Topics include the evolving definition of the term “sectarianism” to include individuals that profit from religious divisions, like Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a history of sectarian violence in the Middle East, and support for Syrian independence from Sunni-majority countries.

Beehner, Lionel. “Why we need to intervene in Syria.” USA Today 4/29/2013: MAS Ultra School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.

Bew, John. “Las Vegas Rules Don’t Apply In Syria”. (Cover Story).” New Statesman 142.5165 (2013): 22. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article looks at the war in Syria as of July 2013, focusing on the potential effectiveness of British and other foreign intervention in the conflict. The author contrasts Syria with other countries in which Arab Spring uprisings have taken place, including Libya and Tunisia, and discusses the strategies used by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to remain in power. Topics include the military and political organization Hezbollah and sectarian divisions between Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims.

 “The Battle for Egypt.” Economist 17 August 2013: 11.

David, Ella. “What Kind Of Peace?” New Internationalist 466(2013): 10. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article looks at peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA) in 2013, which also marks the 20th anniversary of the Palestinian-Israeli Oslo Accords that gave Israel a majority control of the West Bank. It notes that public opinion from both sides is pessimistic that negotiations will reach a favorable outcome despite intervention from the U.S. and European Union (EU). Palestinian defiance of the Oslo Accords is also discussed.

Dixon, John. “Visions of Peace, Realities of Occupation.” Jerusalem Journal. JERUSALEM QUARTERLY, Autumn 1999. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.<http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/ViewArticle.aspx?id=247>.

“Egypt Rebels.” Nation 05 Aug. 2013: 4. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The editorial looks at politics and government in Egypt as of August 2013, focusing on the country’s 2011 Arab Spring uprising and on the 2013 coup carried out by the Egyptian armed forces against Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi. It expresses concern about the coup, noting Morsi was democratically elected. It expresses confidence in the will of the Egyptian public to continue struggling for its ultimate goals of freedom and fairness. U.S. foreign policy toward Egypt is also discussed.

Francois-Cerrah, Myriamsadik, Noreen. “Has The Arab Spring Failed?” New Internationalist 466(2013): 30. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The authors discuss whether or not the Arab Spring, a term used for the series of pro-democracy demonstrations in Arab countries beginning in 2010 , can be considered a success in 2013. Arguments that the movement has failed address issues such as ongoing poverty, political instability, and a lack of political independence in countries such as Egypt, Libya, and Yemen. Arguments suggesting the Arab Spring has succeed cover the removal of dictatorships, increase support of democracy, and women’s rights.

Frykberg, Mel. “Israeli Plan To Snatch 60% Of The West Bank.” Middle East 444 (2013): 28. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article reports that the move by Israel to snatch 60% of the West Bank for illegal Israeli settlements and outposts, has stalled the two state solution for the Israeli-Palestinian crisis. The West Bank is divided into areas, Area A under nominal Palestinian control, Area B under joint Israeli and Palestinian control and Area C, comprising 62% of the West Bank, is set aside exclusively for the Israeli settlers and the Israelis have been carrying out ethnic cleansing of Palestinians.

Goldberg, Jeffrey. “Obama: ‘Israel Doesn’t Know What Its Best Interests Are'” Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg, 14 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-01-14/what-obama-thinks-israelis-don-t-understand-.html>.

“Has the Arab Spring Failed?” Economist 408.8844 (2013): 11. Print.

“Hit him hard.” Economist 31 August 2013: 9.

Holland, Tom. “Egyptian Harbingers.” History Today 63.10 (2013): 6. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
The article compares the 2013 coup by the Egyptian Army against elected Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi to the rule of the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the eighteenth dynasty, as well as that of the succeeding pharaohs Tutankhame and Ay. The monotheistic worship of the sun god Aten introduced by Akhenaten resulted in the Army under General and Pharaoh Horemheb to remove all traces of the three reigns from public records.

Jones, Seth G. “The Mirage Of The Arab Spring.” Foreign Affairs 92.1 (2013): 55. MAS Ultra –School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
An essay is presented on the Arab Spring uprisings, as of January 2013. The author expresses the view that the hopes for democratization and political liberalization in the Middle East raised by the Arab Spring are unlikely to be fulfilled in the near term. He says that most of the countries involved where protests occurred are not managing to create effective or democratic governments, citing examples including Bahrain, Egypt, and Libya, but noting Tunisia as an exception.

Khalidi, Rashid. Brokers of Deceit: How the US Has Undermined Peace in the Middle East.  Boston: Beacon, 2013. Print.  [Amazon]

Khalidi, Rashid. “Is Any Hope Left for Mideast Peace?” The Opinion Pages. The New York Times, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/13/opinion/obama-in-jerusalem.html?_r=0>.

Khalidi, Rashid. “The Uncertain Arab Autumn.” New Statesman 140.5071 (2011): 44. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 3 Nov. 2013.
An essay is presented on the impact of the revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Syria on Palestinian Arabs and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Hostility of Palestinians to the Palestinian Authority (PA), their nominal government, is considered. A proposal by the PA to obtain membership in the United Nations, a de facto form of independence, is examined, and seen as leading to a weakening of its authority.

Lewis, Anthony. “The Irrelevance of a Palestinian State.” The New York Times Magazine. The New York Times, 20 June 1999. Web. 08 Nov. 2013.<http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/20/magazine/the-irrelevance-of-a-palestinian-state.html?pagewanted=all>.

Limbert, John W. “Iran.” Great Decisions: 2013 Edition. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 2013. 71-84. Print. [Foreign Policy Association]

Lynch, Marc. The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: Public Affairs, 2013. Print. [Amazon]

Matar, Hisham. In the Country of Men. New York: Dial, 2007. Print. [Amazon]

Matar, Hisham. “Seeing What We Want to See in Qaddafi.” The New York Times – Opinion. The New York Times, 05 Feb. 2007. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/05/opinion/05matar.html?_r=0>.

Menenberg, Aaron. “The Oslo Legacy.” World Affairs 174.4 (2011): 23. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses U.S. and United Nations (UN) involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, examining the declaration of a Palestinian state at the UN and arguing that the Oslo Accords must be put aside in order to develop a two-state solution. The article examines topics including support for politicians, Israeli presence in Palestinian territories, the participation of Arab countries in the peace process, relations between factors of the Palestinian national movement and Iran, and support for the state of Israel among Israeli Arabs. The author argues that Israeli and Palestinian leaders must accept that they will benefit more from compromising than from entrenching in order to achieve a peace.

Nashashibi, Sharif. “Islamism Or Secularism: Should That Be The Question?.” Middle East 442 (2013): 14. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses rise of political Islam in Arab Spring because of which various countries are experiencing a post-Islamist era including Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco. It states that various reasons contributes to Islamist ascendancy which includes selection of Islamist parties on the basis of their power, religion and their charitable networks.

Norton, Augustus R. “Middle East Realignment: The Arab Upheaval.” Great Decisions: 2012 Edition. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 2012. 5-18. Print. [Foreign Policy Association]

O’Hanlon, Michael. “Bosnia lends clue to Syria strategy.” USA Today n.d.: MAS Ultra -School Edition. Web. 8 Nov. 2013.

“Old Battles, new middle east.” Economist 24 November 2012: 13.
After a week long war between Israel and the Palestinians, a temporary cessation of violence has been agreed.  But can a more durable settlement be found?

Rieff, David. “Reckless Ardor.” Commonweal 140.11 (2013): 9. MAS Ultra – School Edition.  Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article highlights the enthusiasm for an American military intervention in Syria given U.S. President Barack Obama’s reluctance to act before the Syrian civil war started. It notes that a U.S. intervention to bring down Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and the Alawites will represent a severe blow to the Iranian regime and a defeat for Hezbollah in Lebanon. It indicates that a direct U.S. military intervention will lead to a transformation of the battle space.

Rudoren, Jodi. “Israeli Decree on West Bank Settlements Will Harm Peace Talks, Palestinians Say.” The New York Times 5 Aug. 2013, New York ed.: A6. Nytimes.com, 4 Aug. 2013. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/05/world/middleeast/palestinians-assail-israeli-settlement-decree.html?_r=0>.

Rutherford, Bruce K. “Egypt.” Great Decisions: 2013 Edition. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 2013. 19-30. Print. [Foreign Policy Association]

Salih, Kamal Eldin Osman. “The Roots And Causes Of The 2011 Arab Uprisings.” Arab Studies Quarterly 35.2 (2013): 184. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses the causes of the 2011 Arab Spring Uprisings, including an examination of the political history of Arab countries from the 1950s through the early 2010s. An overview of Arab countries’ armed forces, including Egyptian and Tunisian armies’ relationship with their governments, is provided. The role that protests played in the Arab Spring, including against police corruption, is discussed. The 2011 Uprisings in Libya and Yemen, including the role that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) played in deposing the Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi from power, are discussed. The article also discusses the political history of Sudan and Saudi Arabia.

Shuster, Simon with reporting by Baker, Aryn Aysha, Rami Abouzeid, Rania Jay Newton-Small. “Syria’s Risky Arms Race.” Time 180.4 (2012): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article considers the role of foreign countries in Syria’s revolution, focusing on arms transfers to the government of President Bashar Assad and covert arms transfers to the rebels opposing the government. Arms transfers by Russia to Syria are considered as part of Russia’s overall support for Assad’s government. A meeting between Russia’s Foreign Minister and a delegation of revolutionaries is examined as an indication that support might be weakening. Abu Saddam, an arms dealer in Lebanon who is illegally transferring weapons to the Free Syrian Army (FSA), the main armed opposition to Assad, is discussed. Saddam states that the transfers are funded by individuals from Arab countries.

The Middle East in Transition: Questions for U.S. Policy. 2013 ed. Providence: Brown University, 2013. Ibook.  [Choices]

Vick, Karl, Khalil, Ashraf Newton-Small, Jay. “Street Rule.” Time 182.4 (2013): 28. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
The article discusses the mass demonstrations that resulted in a coup and the removal of President Mohamed Morsi from office by the Egyptian military in 2013, focusing on the potential impacts of protests on a democracy. It states that a television blackout was ordered after Morsi was removed so that a rally held by Morsi’s supporters in the Muslim Brotherhood Islamist group was not widely broadcast. Social Democratic party senior official Hussein Gohar is mentioned, along with Egyptian electoral law and the Tamarod social and political movement.

“Unlocking the Middle East.” The Economist 409.8864(2013): 11.

Waltz, Kenneth N. “Why Iran Should Get The Bomb.” Foreign Affairs 91.4 (2012): 2. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 11 Dec. 2013.
The author reflects on Iran’s nuclear program and suggests that its acquisition of nuclear weapons would be a positive development capable of bringing stability to the Middle East. Particular focus is given to U.S. and Israeli responses to the possibility of nuclear weaponization or breakout capacity in Iran. According to the author, U.S. and Israeli policymakers have incorrectly portrayed Iranian leadership as irrational and susceptible to bold offensive moves. It is suggested, however, that if Iran acquires nuclear weapons it will be motivated by self-preservation and will follow the cautious pattern of behavior displayed by other nuclear powers such as China, India, and Pakistan. Other topics include terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and economic sanctions.

Waltz, Kenneth N. “Why Iran Should Get The Bomb.” World Politics 13/14. [S.l.]: Mcgraw-Hill, 2013. 81-141. Print. [Edited version] [Amazon]

Ware, John. “Israel: Facing the Future.” BBC. WGBH. Boston, Massachucetts, 10 Dec. 2013. PBS Video. PBS. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. <http://video.pbs.org/video/2365130594/>.

“We Must Support The Democratic Process In Egypt, Even If We Dislike Its Outcome.” New Statesman 142.5171 (2013): 5. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
The article looks at the political upheaval in Egypt as of August 2013. The author points out that though Western liberals might not have approved of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood, elected in June 2012, people still must accept his leadership because he was democratically elected. Topics include the July 2013 military coup removing Morsi from power, its effect on Egypt’s relations with the U.S. and Great Britain, and the political violence that is occurring.

Wieseltier, Leon. “American is Becoming Heartless in the Face of Evil.” Diarist. New Republic, 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.newrepublic.com/article/114771/leon-wieseltier-kerry-lavrov-syria-deal>.

“Will the ceasefire lead to peace?” Economist 24 November 2012: 53-54.
The cease fire between Israel and Hamas could yet be an unlikely foundation for peace.

Wilentz, Amy. Martyrs’ Crossing: A Novel. New York: Ballantine, 2002. Print. [Amazon]

Yazbik, Samar, Max Weiss, and Rafik Schami. A Woman in the Crossfire: Diaries of the Syrian Revolution. London: Haus Pub., 2012. Print. [Amazon]

Zakaria, Fareed. “A Fool’s Errand Worth Pursuing.” Time 182.6 (2013): 20. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses the Middle East peace process and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry’s efforts to revive talks between the Israelis and Palestinians as of August 2013. the Hamas Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization and its reported control over Gaza are addressed, along with Israeli politician Naftali Bennett and a push by Palestinians to gain formal recognition as a state at the United Nations. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is also mentioned.

Articles for Arab Spring Research Project

Atzori, Erika. “Tunisia Leads The Way.” Middle East 428 (2011): 18. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article offers updates related to the government of Tunisia after the regime of former President Ben Ali. It highlights the election of 217-member constitutional assembly entrusted with the drafting of a new constitution in Tunisia. It mentions the impact of the victory of the Islamist Ennahda Party in the assembly, which is banned under the regime of deposed Ben Ali, to the Arab Spring.

Blanche, Ed. “Yemens Race Against Time.” Middle East 433 (2012): 26. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article focuses on the economic and social crises in Yemen. It mentions the war waged by U.S. President Barack Obama against Al Qaeda and jihadists in Yemen, the inept governance of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was driven from power amid Arab Spring uprisings, dwindling oil reserves and growing water scarcity. Dominic Moran, Arab World Project Coordinator for Greenpeace, traces a link between the conflict between Al Qaeda and U.S.-backed government forces and the 2008-2009 drought.

Dickinson, Elizabeth. “The Silent Arab Springs.” New Republic 244.15 (2013): 12. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
A map and diagram are presented with information on the Persian Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Qatar and the Arab Spring uprisings as of 2013, including domestic programs funded by governments aimed at reducing the grounds for unrest, foreign aid to other Arab countries where uprisings have taken place, and the rate of growth in government spending.

Dickinson, Elizabeth. “Anger Mismanagement.” World Affairs 175.2 (2012): 39. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
The article looks at the political situation in Bahrain as of July 2012, focusing on the Arab Spring protests from February 2011 on. It recounts the response of the government under by Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa. The author argues that various opportunities for achieving a negotiated resolution were squandered and believes that escalating violence and further political polarization are likely. Topics include the Sunni counter-revolution and the role of the Saudi Arabian armed forces in putting down the uprising, which the author says is related to the Saudi government’s geopolitical aim of limiting Iran’s influence in the region.

Goldberg, Jeffery. “Monarch In The Middle.” Atlantic Monthly (10727825) 311.3 (2013): 44.  MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
The article profiles Jordanian King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein, focusing on his thoughts about Jordan‘s economic and political conditions amidst countries such as Syria and Egypt which have been locations for popular unrest during the Arab Spring popular uprisings. Topics include Abdullah’s thoughts on Hashemites, his criticism of the Arab intelligence service called the General Intelligence Department (GID), and his thoughts about the Arab-Israeli conflict and Syrian President Bashar Assad.

Jones, Toby C. “Saudi Arabia’s Regional Reaction.” Nation 293.11 (2011): 39. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
The article discusses the impact of the Arab spring uprisings in 2011 on the government and politics of Saudi Arabia. Details related to the Saudi government and King Abdullah’s regime are provided. The government has maintained stability in the country amidst the revolutions in the Middle East region. Information about the Islamic extremism of the government and the threat of violence towards women activists is provided. It is suggested that the stability of the country could be compromised by the Saudi people who may resist the regime.

Vandewalle, Dirk. “After Qaddafi.” Foreign Affairs 91.6 (2012): 8. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The author evaluates the status of politics and government in Libya as of November 2012, following the country’s 2011 Arab Spring revolution and the overthrow of the regime of leader Muammar al-Qaddafi. He expresses the view that post-revolution Libya is faring reasonably well, citing steps including the on-schedule July 2012 national elections. Topics include transitional justice, reopening of schools and other institutions, and the petroleum industry.

Zunes, Stephen. “Bahrain’s Arrested Revolution.” Arab Studies Quarterly 35.2 (2013): 149. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
The article discusses the 2011 pro-democracy movement in Bahrain, which is part of the 2011 Arab Spring Uprisings, with a particular focus on American, Saudi Arabian and Iranian foreign policy in this regard. U.S. President Barack Obama’s support of Bahrain’s King Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa in the face of pro-democracy protests is discussed. An overview of the sectarian nature of Bahrain’s pro-democracy uprising, which consists largely of Shia protests against the country’s Sunni-dominated government, is provided.

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