America After 9-11

“21 Rationales For War.” Foreign Policy 144 (2004): 18. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web.16 Aug. 2013.
The article looks at 21 reasons that were given to United States citizens in favor of the Iraq War of 2003, and discusses who promoted the various reasons. Want a reason for war with Iraq? A study by Devon Largio, a recent graduate of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, reveals that between September 2001 and October 2002 10 key players in the debate over Iraq presented at least 21 rationales for going to war. Largio examines the public statements of President George W. Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, Senate Democratic leader Tom Daschle, Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, Richard Perle (then chairman of the Defense Policy Review Board), Secretary of State Colin Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz. The table illustrates who deployed each rationale.

Anderson, Carol. “Text Article by Carol Anderson THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST By Mohsin Hamid.” Insight Text Article on The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Insight Publications, 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. <Insight Publications>.

A Thousand Splendid Suns Theme Analysis Lesson.” The Khaled Hosseini Foundation. The Khaled Hosseini Foundation, Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. <http://www.sos4tkhf.com/downloads/ATSS_Theme_Analysis_Lesson.pdf>.

Boot, Max. “The Odds In Afghanistan.” National Review 65.10 (2013): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 30 July 2013.
The article looks at the Afghan War and U.S. policy in Afghanistan, as of May 2013. The author discusses the prospects for the country to stabilize under an elected government and avoid major civil conflict or a resumption of power by the Taliban insurgents. He proposes U.S. policies to make such a positive outcome more likely. Topics include the number of U.S. troops remaining in the country, the 2014 Afghan election, the role of Pakistan, and Afghan President Hamid Karzai.

Burger, Timothy J. “Summary Judgment.” Time 163.9 (2004): 16. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 14 Aug. 2013.
Reports on a summary prepared for President George W. Bush of an October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq. Reasons for the importance of the Senate Intelligence Committee reviewing this summary in connection with the decision to go to war against Iraq based on the presence of weapons of mass destruction in that country; Possibility that the Bush team ignored important caveats that accompanied intelligence estimates about Iraq’s suspected WMD.

Byman, Daniel. “Why Drones Work.” Foreign Affairs 92.4 (2013): 32. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013.
The article looks at the use of drone aircraft for targeted missile attacks as part of U.S. counter-terrorism policy, as of 2013. The author notes that drone attacks have raised controversy, and he presents a case for the view that drone attacks are an effective and legitimate element of U.S. military policy. He says that by killing thousands of leaders and members of al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups, primarily in Pakistan and Yemen, the drone strikes ordered by U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama have significantly weakened those groups. He argues that alternative strategies would have been riskier for the U.S. military and would likely have caused more civilian casualties in the targeted area than did drone strikes.

Cronin, Audrey Kurth. “Why Drones Fail.” Foreign Affairs 92.4 (2013): 44. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013.
The article looks at the use of drone aircraft for targeted missile attacks as part of U.S. counter-terrorism policy, as of 2013. The author presents a case for the view that drone attacks are an ineffective tactic in meeting the strategic goals of U.S. counterterrorism policy. She says killing the leaders of a terrorist organization, as drone strikes have done in the case of the al-Qaeda terrorist group, does not necessarily destroy the organization. She argues that such killings, as well as the collateral civilian deaths, enhance al-Qaeda’s propaganda and recruitment. She also says the use of drones has weakened strategic cooperation on counter-terrorism between the U.S. and the countries targeted by U.S. drone strikes, particularly Pakistan and Yemen.

Falk, Richard. “A JUST RESPONSE. (Cover Story).” Nation 273.10 (2001): 11. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Aug. 2013.
This article presents an analysis of the situation in the U.S. in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. It is important to appreciate this transformative shift in the nature of the terrorist challenge both conceptually and tactically. Without comprehending these shifts, it will not be possible to fashion a response that is either effective or legitimate, and we need both. It remains obscure on the terrorist side whether a strategic goal accompanies this tactical escalation. At present it appears that the tactical brilliance of the operation will soon be widely regarded as a strategic blunder of colossal proportions. It would seem that the main beneficiaries of the attack in the near future are also the principal enemies of the perpetrators.

Filkins, Dexter. “After America.” New Yorker 88.20 (2012): 54. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 30 July 2013.
The article examines the status of Afghanistan leading up to the 2014 withdrawal of U.S. troops and the possible consequences. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a civil war, similar to one experienced in the 1990s when the Soviet Union-supported government was overthrown. Other topics discussed include the Taliban, Afghan militia groups, and the Afghan Army.

Fuller, Graham E. “The Future of Political Islam.” Foreign Affairs 81.2 (2002): 48. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Aug. 2013.
This article addresses the political and social implications for the Muslim world stemming from the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. Specifically, were the attacks the final blow of Islamic radicals, or the beginning of a more violent confrontation between them and the West? What does the current crisis imply for the future of the Islamic world itself? The author believes the answers to these questions lie party in the hands of the US. He observes that the West ignores the reality that Islam and politics are intricately intertwined. And the real issue is not what Islam is, but what Muslims want. He examines the formidable obstacles facing the liberal evolution of political Islam. He observes that several regimes are embracing harsh social and intellectual interpretations of Islam so as to bolster their credentials against Islamist opposition. Most of the Muslim world hopes the September 11 attacks spur the US to change its Mideast policy, but US policymakers would be wise to spread their political values to areas where they are not. Americans need to be mindful of the extent to which Islam is entwined with politics throughout the Muslim world. A just settlement for the Palestinians and support of regional democratization remain among the key weapons that can fight the growth of terrorism. He concludes that it would be a disaster for the US and the Muslim world if the war on terrorism fails to liberalize the Muslim battered societies, and instead exacerbates conditions.

Hadley, Stephen and Podesta, John. “The Right Way Out Of Afghanistan.” Foreign Affairs 91.4 (2012): 41. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 30 July 2013.
The article looks at political and security conditions in Afghanistan in advanced of the scheduled 2014 withdrawal of U.S. and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops from the country and makes recommendations about U.S. policy for the transition. The authors argue that the transition strategy of U.S. President Barack Obama is overly focused on the Afghan military and that the U.S. should do more to reform the Afghan government under President Hamid Karzai so it has greater legitimacy, strengthen the country’s judiciary, and achieve a political settlement among different political and ethnic factions including the Taliban. The role of Pakistan is also discussed.

Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Orlando: Harcourt, 2007. Print. [Amazon]

Hanson, Victor Davis. “Why Did We Invade Iraq?” National Review Online. National Review Online, 26 Mar. 2013. Web. 16 Aug. 2013.
This article reviews the political climate as Afghanistan was winding down.  Satisfied with ousting the Taliban, the administration felt it had multiple justifiable reasons for pushing the “War on Terror” into Iraq.

Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. New York: Riverhead, 2003. Print. [Amazon]

Hosseini, Khaled. A Thousand Splendid Suns. New York: Riverhead, 2007. Print.  [Amazon]

Khemchandani-Daswani, Sheetal. The Kite Runner: Companion Curriculum. N.p.: Amnesty International, n.d. Human Rights Education. Amnesty International, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/kiterunnerhigh_0.pdf>.

Kramer, Stephen D. “Talking Tough To Pakistan.” Foreign Affairs 91.1 (2012): 87. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 12 Dec. 2013.
The article discusses the U.S. foreign policy with the nation of Pakistan. Topics include observations of U.S. official Mike Mullen about Pakistan, the funding of Pakistan by the U.S. government for counter-terrorism efforts, the U.S. military raid in Pakistan to kill terrorist leader Osama bin Laden, and public opinion in Pakistan towards the U.S. The article also discusses lack of cooperation from the Pakistan government, the work of Pakistan with terrorists such as the Haqqani network, and U.S. assistance to civilians in the country. It is suggested that the U.S. should change its strategy to make threats to Pakistan for cooperation in the alliance.

Lelyveld, Joseph. “What 9/11 Wrought.” Smithsonian 42.5 (2011): 58. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 14 Aug. 2013.
The article discusses the responses of the U.S. to the September 11, 2011 terrorist attacks, examining policies from 2001 to 2011. It comments on the Global War on Terror, examining the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The author considers the treatment of prisoners suspected of involvement in terrorism held at Guantánamo Bay detention camp in Cuba. He also considers the impact of the 2001 terrorist attacks on Americans’ civil liberties and individual rights, reflecting on government surveillance.

Mayer, Jane. “The Predator War.” New Yorker 85.34 (2009): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition.  Web. 30 July 2013.
The article discusses the risks of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) covert drone program. It notes that the possibility of targeted assassination programs has been highly controversial in the U.S., but that the predator drone program has carried out assassinations without arousing controversy. The military drone program is acknowledged and carries out attacks in war zones, thus making it an extension of conventional warfare. The CIA program, however, is covert and operates worldwide.

Mcdonell, Nick, Habibi Muhib, Fazly Walid, SanginGahn Lashkar. “Green On Blue.” Time 182.2 (2013): 82. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 30 July 2013.
The article looks at the relations between the U.S. military forces in Afghanistan and the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), focusing on an August 2012 incident where Afghan soldier Abdul Razaq shot at several U.S. marines belonging to Team 8133, killing three of them. Topics include Razaq’s upbringing as a farmer, the vetting process of the ANSF, and a study commissioned by the U.S. Military Command in Jalalabad, Afghanistan that discusses the conflicts between U.S. soldiers and Afghan soldiers. Razaq’s relationship with Asadullah Sherhai, an Afghan lieutenant, is discussed.

McGlinn, Jeanne M. “A Study Guide to Khaled Hosseini, A Thousand Splendid Suns.” Riverhead Books, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2013 http://www.us.penguingroup.com/static/pdf/teachersguides/ThousandSplendidSunsTG.pdf.

Nasr, Vali. “AFGHANISTAN: AN AFTER-ACTION REPORT. (Cover Story).” Foreign Policy 199 (2013): 41.  MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.
The article discusses the author’s experiences with the foreign policy strategies of U.S. President Barack Obama and his administration, with a focus on U.S. involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq. Topics include the contributions of foreign policy advisers such as U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Special Envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan Richard Holbrooke, Obama’s “AfPak” strategy which considered Pakistan and Afghanistan as a single strategic zone, and U.S. policy regarding the relationship between Pakistan and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

O’Hanlon, Michael. “Exit from Afghanistan & Iraq: Right Time, Right Pace?” Great Decisions: 2012 Edition. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 2012. 59-70. Print. [Foreign Policy Association]

Payne, Rodger A. “”Threat Construction in the War on Terror: The Case of Pakistan” | Rodger A. Payne – Academia.edu.” Academia.edu. Department of Political ScienceUniversity of Louisville, 2008. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.academia.edu/544047/_Threat_Construction_in_the_War_on_Terror_The_Case_of_Pakistan_>.

Qazi, Shehzad H. “US-Pakistan Relations.” World Affairs 175.1 (2012): 71. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 30 July 2013.

Rashid, Ahmed. “Pakistan, the Taliban And The US.” Nation 273.10 (2001): 15. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Aug. 2013.
This article focuses on the change in the policy of Pakistan towards Taliban on being pressured by the U.S. After having spent the past seven years providing every conceivable form of military, political and financial support to the Taliban, Pakistan is now essentially being asked by Washington to help the U.S. bomb the Taliban leadership, along with their guest Osama bin Laden, and topple the Taliban regime. The U.S. has given the military regime a list of demands in order to facilitate Washington’s expected attack on bin Laden.

Rodriguez, David M. “Leaving Afghanistan to the Afghans.” Foreign Affairs 90.5 (2011): 45. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 12 Dec. 2013.
The article offers opinions about the success of security forces in Afghanistan in cooperation with U.S. and coalition forces in the Afghan war. The successes of coalition and Afghan security forces in combating insurgents, gaining more territory, and waging a campaign against the Taliban terrorist group are discussed. The increased control of forces by the Afghan army and police is discussed. It is suggested that the Afghan army is prepared for the U.S. forces to leave the conflict but that challenges still remain such as partnerships with the government, cooperation from Pakistan in fighting extremists, and U.S. diplomatic relations with Afghanistan.

Schell, Jonathan. “The Iraq Disaster.” Nation 296.13 (2013): 3. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013.
The article looks retrospectively at the Iraq War, on its 10th anniversary. The author argues that the war was disastrous and wrong, and criticizes the rationale for it offered by the administration of former U.S. President George W. Bush, to halt Iraq’s development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including nuclear weapons. He says the idea of using military force rather than diplomacy to achieve nonproliferation is at issue in U.S. President Barack Obama’s Iran policy.

“Talking to the Taliban.” The Economist 407.8841 (2013): 43-4. Print.
Although efforts are being made to negotiate an end, Karzai fears being cut out of the process and therefore his support for these negotiations have wavered.  Two other important groups, those who want a global jihad to reinstitute an Islamic caliphate and those who have been aligned with the Northern Alliance in fighting the Taliban may not support dealing with the Taliban to end hostilities.  Regardless of the productivity of the talks, the Afghan National Army (ANA) will still need tremendous assistance from the US in terms of logistics.

Tharoor, Shashi. “The Global Century.” American Scholar 71.1 (2002): 66. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Aug. 2013.
Contends that on September 11, 2001, the twenty-first century was born. Impact that this date will likely have on the decades to follow; Significance of the destruction of the World Trade Center by terrorists; Ways in which these events are emblematic of the new century; View that the reaction in the U.S. will leave an indelible mark; How fear, rage and incomprehension fueled terrorism; Thoughts on how to respond to the terrorists.

The Kite Runner Theme Analysis Lesson.” The Khaled Hosseini Foundation. The Khaled

Hosseini Foundation, Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. <http://www.sos4tkhf.com/downloads/TKR_Theme_Analysis_Lesson.pdf>.

The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Dir. Mira Nair. Perf. Riz Ahmed, Liev Schreiber, and Kiefer Sutherland. IFC Films, 2012. DVD. [Amazon]

The United States in Afghanistan. First ed. Providence, RI: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, 2011. Print. [Choices]

Winkler, Lisa K. “A Study Guide to the Riverhead edition of Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner.” Riverhead Books, 2007. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.us.penguingroup.com/static/pdf/teachersguides/kiterunnertg0110a.pdf>.

“Why Zero Is Not an Option.” Economist 20 July 2013: 11. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.<http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21582008-hamid-karzai-and-barack-obama-should-stop-playing-games-afghanistans-future-why-zero-not>.

Zalman, Amy, and Jonathan Clarke. “The Global War on Terror: A Narrative in Need of a Rewrite [Full Text].” Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 23.2 (Summer 2009). Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 24 June 2009. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/journal/23_2/essays/002>.

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