New World [dis]Order

“A Chronicle of Deaths Foretold.” Special Report The Srebrenica Massacre. The Economist, 7 July 2005. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

“A Region in Flames.” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 05 July 2003. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. <>.

Abbott, Anita. “Hotel Rwanda.” Film Education., 2006. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. <>.

Barnes, Edward and William Dowell. “The Heart of Darkness.” Time 153.3 (1999): 46. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
Describes violence committed by rebels in Sierra Leone. Conflicts between the rebels of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG); Brief history of the decline of Sierra Leone since May, 1997; Coup d’etat of President Ahmed Tejan Kabbah; Use of terror as a strategy by the RUF; Extent of brutalization; Observations made by Human Rights Watch; No end to conflict in sight.

Bass, Warren. “The Triage of Dayton.” Foreign Affairs 77.5 (1998): 95. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 3 Feb. 2014.
Discusses the Dayton Accords of November 1995 and the evolution of United States policy and the enormity of the shortfall of American statecraft in the Bosnia conflict. Shifting of the goals espoused by President Bill Clinton in 1992; Dayton representing a version of realpolitik that kept the Bush administration out of Bosnia; Strengthening of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic; Policies of the Bush and Clinton administrations contrasted.

Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Print. [Amazon]

Beah, Ishmael. Radiance of Tomorrow: a Novel. New York: Sarah Crichton , Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014. Print.

Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot. New York, NY: Grove, 2011. Print. [Amazon]

Buckley Jr., William F. “On Being Involved In Mankind.” National Review 48.24 (1996): 63. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
The article reflects on the moral responsibility of the U.S. as a superpower for maintaining international security. It cites the example of the civil war in the boundaries of Rwanda and Burundi as an internal problem wherein the U.S. and other superpowers must intervene. It argues in favor of the notion that war settles, although not necessarily, disputes. It emphasizes the importance of humanitarian and military intervention as demonstrated by the intervention in Somalia where several U.S. soldiers were killed.

Burns, John F. “To Sarajevo, Writer Brings Good Will and ‘Godot'” Archives. The New York Times, 19 Aug. 1993. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

Cain, Herman. “In Defense of American Exceptionalism.” American Spectator 44.2 (2011): 8. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
The author discusses the American Exceptionalism which he claims is the standard that the laws reflect the understanding that Americans are afforded certain God-given rights that can never be taken away. He points out that the U.S. is the greatest country in the world, blessed with unparalleled freedoms and boundless prosperity. He believes that Americans see American Exceptionalism as blessings of God that keep the country strong, free and independent.

Chomsky, Noam. “Judge The US By Deeds, Not Words.” New Statesman 128.4431 (1999): 11. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
Analyzes the argument used by the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in their intervention in the war in Kosovo, Serbia. Views of lawyer Jack Goldsmith on the legal argument for the military intervention; Previous humanitarian catastrophe in Kosovo; Comparison of Kosovo to other politically unstable countries.

Clark, Jeffrey. “Debacle in Somalia.” Foreign Affairs 72.1 (1993): 109. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Considers how the current famine in Somalia has resulted from a collective international failure. Chief perpetrators of Somalia’s misery; Ethiopia’s lessons of failure; Damning the United Nations; Washington’s schizophrenic response; Reforming humanitarian intervention; The need for accountability.

Clarke, Walter and Jeffery Herbst. “Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention.” Foreign Affairs 75.2 (1996): 70. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
Assesses the United States role in foreign armed humanitarian interventions in the post-Cold War era. Calls for a reevaluation of US `peace’ missions; Denunciation of President Bill Clinton’s pre-election rhetoric of assertive multilateralism; US intervention in Somalia as a precedent of future US foreign interventions; Accomplishments of the Somalian mission.

Cohen, Lenard J. “Bosnia And Herzegovina: Fragile Peace In A Segmented State.” Current History 95.599 (1996): 103. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 1 Feb. 2014.
Reports on the peace agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina. Latest peace plans of the Contact Group; What the contact group comprises of; What the United States and its allies have persuaded Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to do. INSET: Core elements of the peace agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Competing Visions of Human Rights: Questions for U.S. Policy. Providence: The Choices Program – Brown University, 2013. ebook. [Choices]

Crocker, Chester. “A Poor Case For Quitting.” Foreign Affairs 79.1 (2000): 183. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.
The article presents a response to two articles published in the July/August 1999 issue of the journal Foreign Affairs. The articles “Redefining the National Interest,” by Joseph Nye and “Give War a Chance,” by Edward Luttwak call on the United States to scale back its humanitarian intervention in places of low strategic importance. Both scholars would have the West curtail its tendency to intervene in other people’s wars. Unfortunately, their discussions muddle the long-overdue dialogue on the U.S. national interests and the proper policy toward peace operations. Luttwak’s essential argument that most forms of outside intervention actually postpone peace and perpetuate war, making it better to let minor wars burn themselves out, is seductive. So, too, is Nye’s appeal for raising the bar on humanitarian interventions and keeping the U.S.’s strategic eye focused on higher-priority interests. His is a plea not to squander unique military and political capital on lower-order conflicts.

Cuny, Frederick . C. “Human Assistance in the Post Cold War Era.” The Lost America. Frontline – PBS, n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <>.

Destexhe, Alain. “The Third Genocide.” Foreign Policy 97 (1994): 3. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Discusses the systematic genocide of the Rwandan Tutsis following the death of Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana, on April 6, 1994. Definition of genocide; Ethnic problems of the words Hutu and Tutsi; Operation turquoise; Justice and reconciliation.

Forsythe, David P. “Human Rights in a Post-Cold War World.” POST-COLD WAR WORLD. Tufts University, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2014.

French, Howard W. “The Case Against Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame.” Newsweek Global 161.2 (2013): 1. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
The article suggests that President of Rwanda Paul Kagame deserves to be indicted instead of celebrated. He allegedly was involved in conflicts which were responsible for over five million deaths. Formerly supported by U.S. Presidents Barack Obama and Bill Clinton who praised his leadership after Rwanda’s genocide in 1994, Kagame now has been warned against any continued military activity in the aftermath of his creation of rebel groups active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Friedman, Thomas L. and Michael Mandelbaum. “America Really Was That Great (But That Doesn’t Mean We Are Now).” Foreign Policy 189 (2011): 76. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
The article presents the authors’ reflections on the concept of “American exceptionalism,” contrasting its meaning within the context of U.S. history and its contemporary use within the political discourse of the 21st century. Introductory details are given describing the historiographical understanding of American exceptionalism, citing the ways in which the civilization of the United States differed from the political, social and economic structures of its European antecedents. Commentary is then offered asserting that this distinction no longer exists and therefore the definition does not apply. Suggestions for ways to re-introduce American distinction in economic terms are also given.

Friedman, Thomas L. “Don’t Just Do Something.  Sit There.” The Opinion Pages. The New York Times, 25 Feb. 2014. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <>.

Friedman, Uri. “American Exceptionalism.” Foreign Policy 194 (2012): 22. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
A timeline is presented which tracks the development of the idea of American exceptionalism which includes the 1776 pamphlet “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine, the 1840 book “Democracy in America” by Alexis de Tocqueville, and the 1914 speech by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson which asserts that it is the duty of the U.S. to spread liberty to other countries.

Gberie, Lansana. “Fighting For Peace.” UN Chronicle 37.2 (2000): 51. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
Deals with the involvement of the United Nations (UN) in the war in Sierra Leone. Nature of and reasons for the war; Issue on the concept of humanitarian intervention; Problems with the intervention of the UN in the war.

Gibbs, Nancy and Bruce Crumley. “Cry The Forsaken Country. (Cover Story).” Time 144.5 (1994): 28. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Focuses on the two million Rwandan Hutu refugees who have fled from a vicious war with Tutsi rebels into Zaire where hunger and disease now threaten them. Description of conditions; The camp at Goma; Orphaned children; Cholera; International Red Cross; Doctors Without Borders; The overwhelming needs. INSET: Boutros-Ghali speaks out (UN Secretary-General).

Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998. Print

Gourevitch, Philip. “We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda.” Books: The New York Times on the Web. The New York Times, 1998. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. <>.

Gourevitch, Philip. “The Life After.” New Yorker  85.12 (2009): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
The article discusses Rwanda since the 1994 genocide there and how the country is healing itself after the death of almost one million Tutsi people by the Hutus. The changes that have been made in the country since the genocide are discussed and Rwandan President Paul Kagame talks about the improvements in the country. Kagame talks about life for Tutsi people before the genocide and the abuses they suffered.

Hammer, Joshua. “Teenage Wasteland.” New Republic 212.15 (1995): 10. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
Describes the civil war in Sierra Leone as of April 1995. Impact of the civil war on the country’s economy; Cause of the civil war; Military conscription of male children; Threat made by rebels against foreigners in the country; Exodus of foreigners out of the country.

Hammer, Joshua. “State of Denial.” New Republic 230.13/14 (2004): 10. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Discusses how former members of the Rwandan Armed Forces are being reeducated and reintroduced to Rwandan society after being in exile for 10 years. Consideration of how those involved in Rwanda’s genocide have been living in denial of their actions; Efforts of the Rwandan government to encourage citizens to educated themselves about the truth of the atrocities associated with the genocide; Plans for a genocidal memorial and museum in the capital Kigali for the tenth anniversary of the killings; How Hutu suspected killers are asked to confess their crimes in prison in exchange for provisional release.

Hamrick, S.J. “Aideed It My Way.” New Republic 209.6 (1993): 14. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
This article focuses on the continued efforts by warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed in disrupting the humanitarian mission of the United Nations (U.N.) in Somalia. Since May 1993, when the mission in Somalia replaced the United States-led coalition, Aideed’s snipers and the rocket grenadiers of his clan have ambushed and killed scores of U.N. soldiers. The international community should come up with efforts to deal with the terrorist approaches of Aideed’s forces. Should his efforts succeed and the UN acquiesce, he would remain the chief power broker in Mogadishu and the entire country will continue to suffer politically, socially and economically for years to come. If the principle of collective humanitarian action in the U.N. Charter’s Chapter VII can be overthrown by the likes of Aideed, then it is not worth the paper it is written on, to say nothing of the lives it has already claimed.

“Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy: Foundations of Peace.” Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy. Ed. David P. Forsythe. United Nations University, Nov. 2000. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <>.

Ignatieff, Michael. “The Attack on Human Rights.” Foreign Affairs 80.6 (2001): 102. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 5 Feb. 2014.
Discusses the cultural challenge to the universality of human rights. How the Islamic faith fails to meet the standards of Western human rights; Conflict between individual and group interests; How human rights should not delegitimize traditional culture.

“Into Africa.” New Republic  207.27 (1992): 7. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Focuses on the U.S. government’s military intervention, in its conduct of foreign policy, in Africa, specially in Somalia against the issue of genocide and famines. Justification of the intervention on strategic and moral grounds; Argument that an idealist foreign policy will always seem inconsistent, or even hypocritical; Discussion of the nature of moral action as saving lives partially, locally, and temporarily and as an attempt to mend it completely to achieve totalitarianism; Arguments differentiating genocide, famines, and civil war; Expression of humanity in famine relief efforts in Somalia; Comments on U.S. military officer Colin Powell’s Operation Restore Hope in Somalia; Need for idealism in the U.S. foreign policy.

Juger, Sebastian. “Kosovo’s Valley of Death.” Vanity Fair, July 1998. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <>.

Kaplan, Robert D. “The Coming Anarchy. (Cover Story).” Atlantic Monthly (10727825) 273.2 (1994): 44. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
The article examines how multiple factors of anarchy are creating global problems. Scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are described as rapidly destroying the social fabric of the planet. According to the author, the conditions of Sierra Leone in the 1990s is a microcosm of what is occurring throughout West Africa and much of the underdeveloped world.

Kaplan, Robert D. “Why So Much Anarchy? Stratfor Global Intelligence, 5 Feb. 2014. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. <>.

Keller, Bill. “De Klerk’s Gorbachev Problem.” The New York Times – Archives. The New York Times, 30 Jan. 1993. Web. 20 Feb. 2014. <>.

Lane, Charles. “The Fall of Srebrenica.” New Republic 213.7 (1995): 14. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 3 Feb. 2014.
Examines the political and military failure in Srebrenica, Bosnia and Hercegoniva in 1995. Comment on the claim that Srebrenica was militarily indefensible; Incidents that have set the stage for a fierce Muslim counterattack against the Serbs; Details of the hostage-taking of Dutch forces by the Serbs in the region; Implication of the failure of Srebrenica’s Bosnian army defenders to put up a serious fight against the Serbs.

Lelyveld, Joseph. “The Defendant.” The New Yorker 27 May 2002: 82-95.

“Liberia And Human Rights.” America 184.16 (2001): 12. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
Interviews Samuel Kofi Woods II, attorney and human right worker in Liberia. Profile of Woods; Award he received for his human rights promotion activities; Why he left the country in 1998; Background of his human right activities; His positions on the role of Liberia in Sierra Leone’s civil war; Greatest challenges faced by his country.

Lizza, Ryan. “Where Angels Fear To Tread.” New Republic 223.4 (2000): 22. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
Presents evidence that U.S. government concealed a botched attempt to mend rebel warfare in Sierra Leone. In-depth analysis of the events leading up to the 1998 peace agreement signing and the persuasion of the U.S. in negotiations; Facts and information on Fodoy Sankoh and how he rose to power in leading the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); Atrocities committed against civilians by the RUF and Charles Taylor, a warlord in Liberia; Criticism of the role of Reverend Jesse Jackson in the reconciliation.

Luttwak, Edward N. “Give War A Chance.” Foreign Affairs 78.4 (1999): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 5 Feb. 2014.
The article focuses on the negative effects of third-party interference in a war. It is considered that despite its evils, war does have a great virtue, it can resolve political conflicts and lead to peace. But, it can happen only when all belligerents become exhausted or when one wins in the end. So, it is considered that any war must continue until a resolution is reached. But after the establishment of the United Nations and the influence of power politics in its Security Council, the wars among lesser powers have rarely been allowed to follow their natural course. The wars are interrupted by third party intervention and cease-fires are frequently imposed. But a cease-fire tends to arrest war-induced exhaustion and allow belligerents to reconstitute and rearm their forces.

Maass, Peter. Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War. New York: Vintage a Division of Random House, 1997. Print. [Amazon]

Maass, Peter.  “Bosnia’s Ground Zero.” Peter Maass. March 1996. 10 March 2014.
This is an excerpt originally published in Vanity Fair in March 1996.

Mueller, John.  “The Banality of Ethnic War.” International Security 25.1(2000): 42-70.
Compares the situations of the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, arguing that the conflicts were not the result of long brewing ethnic hatreds but of relatively small bands of thugs and criminals who were directed by politicians.

Nelan, Bruce W. & J.F.O McAllister. “Taking On The Thugs. (Cover Story).” Time 140.24 (1992): 26. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Suggests that in sending thousands of American soldiers into Somalia to feed the hungry, President George Bush has sprung a very big operation without clearly defining his short- and long-term goals and seems to mismatch means and ends. The narrowly conceived military action will bring food to the famished while US troops are present, but what happens when they leave? Stress on the humanitarian nature of the operation; United Nations actions.

Nelan, Bruce W.Barnes, Edward. “Tears And Terror.” Time 146.4 (1995): 40. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 3 Feb. 2014.
Reveals the ongoing carnage and human misery that is taking place in the eastern Bosnian zone that had been declared a `safe area’ in 1993. The taking of Srebenica; The impotence of the United Nations (UN) and NATO to limit Serb brutality; Discussion of options; UN policy based on declarations instead of action

O’Sullivan, Gerry. “Another Cold War Casualty.” Humanist 53.1 (1993): 36. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Asserts that the story of Somalia has, without doubt, been one of the most poorly contextualized news items of the last several years. How the US media has portrayed Somalia; Somalia has geopolitical football; General Siad Barre; US military assistance to Somali regime; Somalia National Movement (SNM); Evidence suggesting US complicity in the slaughter as recently as 1990.

“Other People’s Wars.” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 31 July 1999. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <>.

Perlez, Jane. “For the Sudan, Famine Is Almost As Certain As Civil War.” Archives. The New York Times, 03 Feb. 1990. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <>.

Power, Samantha. “Kosovo: A Dog and a Fight.” A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Perennial, 2003: 443-473.Print.

Power, Samantha. A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide.

Power, Samantha. “Bystanders To Genocide.” Atlantic Monthly (10727825) 288.2 (2001): 84. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
The article presents the author’s analysis of the United States’s failure to prevent or stop the Rwandan genocide. The political decisions of the United States government with the UN’s power to intervene in the genocide are discussed. An overview of the conflict’s timeline and the United States intelligence concerning the events is given.

Press, Robert M. “Retreat from Somalia. (cover story).” Christian Science Monitor 27 Feb. 1995: 9. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Reviews the achievements of the United Nation’s two-year peacekeeping mission to Somalia as it draws to an end in the week beginning February 27, 1995. Situation in Somalia; Negative results of UN military intervention in Somalia; Details of the rivalry between Gen. Mohamed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed in Somalia; Critics’ arguments against UN intervention. INSET: The lessons of Somalia, by R.M.P.

Ransdell, Eric and Jerelyn Eddings. “The Rebels Take Charge.” U.S. News & World Report 116.17 (1994): 40. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Reports on the historic all-race elections in South Africa which are almost certain to confirm Nelson Mandela as the country’s first black president and his African National Congress (ANC) as the majority party. How ANC stands to inherit its bitter legacy of violence, unemployment homelessness and more; What success or failure of the so-called new South Africa will depend on; Mandela’s lack of bitterness after prison and persecution; Appointment of minister of defense.

Remnick, David. “The Wanderer.” New Yorker 82.29 (2006): 42. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. Also at:

Rieff, David. “Abort Mission.” New Republic  215.24 (1996): 9. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Focuses on the role of the Rwandan government in resolving the refugee crisis in Eastern Zaire. Details of the actions taken by the Rwandan government in an insurrection in Eastern Zaire that broke the Hutu militia’s hold over the refugee camps; Discussion on the militarization of humanitarian relief operations; Assumption of Prime Minister Jean Chretien shared by governments, the United Nations and aid agencies.

Rieff, David. “The Precarious Triumph of Human Rights.”  The New York Times Magazine 8 August 1990: 36-41.

Santoro, Lara. “Ghost Story.” New Republic 227.20 (2002): 11. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 7 Mar. 2014.
Highlights the efforts of the government in Rwanda to settle the dispute between the Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority as of November 2002. Background on the concept of gacaca community hearings; History of the dispute between the two groups; Factors which may hinder the efficiency of gacaca to settle the dispute.

“Sierra Leone.” UN Chronicle 38.2 (2001): 74. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
Reports progress in the peace process in Sierra Leone. Solidification of contact with the Revolutionary United Front; Negotiations for the resumption of the Abuja Ceasefire Agreement; Role of the international community in the disarmament process.

Simons, Marlise. “A Yugoslav Soldier’s Story Poses Challenge to Milosevic.” The New York Times – Archives. The New York Times, 08 Sept. 2002. Web. 01 Mar. 2014. <>.

Smaljlovic, Ljiljana. “From the Heart of the Heart of the Former Yugoslavia.” Wilson Quarterly 19.3 (1995): 100-13. Wilson Quarterly. The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <>.

Sontag, Susan. “Waiting for Godot in Sarajevo.” Performing Arts Journal 16.2 (1994): 87-106. JSTOR. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.

Terry, Sara. “Fambul Tok: Educators Guide.” Fambultokcom. Catalyst for Peace, 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. <>.

The United Nations: Challenges and Change. Providence: The Choices Program – Brown University, 2013. ebook. [Choices]

The U.S. Role in a Changing World. Providence: The Choices Program – Brown University, 2013. ebook. [Choices]

Walt, Stephen M. “The Myth of American Exceptionalism.” Foreign Policy 189 (2011): 72. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
The article discusses myths related to the views of Americans about American exceptionalism. Topics include the tendency for great powers to assert exceptionalism, the policies of the U.S. on dictatorships and human rights in the world, and the reasons for success in the U.S.

Western, Jon. “Doctrinal Divisions.” Harvard International Review 26.1 (2004): 46. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
Examines the politics of the U.S. military interventions. Issues on the politics of intervention; Information on the perils of politics; Implications for post-intervention commitments; Factors that contribute to the future of political interventions in the U.S. INSET: US TROOPS ABROAD.

Wilson, James Lindley Monten, Jonathan. “Does Kant Justify Liberal Intervention?.” Review Of Politics 73.4 (2011): 633. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
The recent US occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan have renewed the debate over whether military interventions intended to impose democracy in a foreign state are consistent with liberal principles. The liberal political tradition within the United States has often been divided over this question. At issue is what place, if any, military force should have in a foreign policy dedicated to promoting goals such as the spread of electoral democracy, respect for human rights, and the rule of law.

Winter, Roger B.  “Refugees, War, and Famine in Sudan.”  Issue: A Journal of Opinion 19.2 (1991): 56-61.  JSTOR.  25 February 2014.  Hhtp://

Woehrel, Steven J. Bosnia Current Issues and U.S. Policy. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2012. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <>.

Zakaria, Fareed. “When The U.N. Fails, We All Do.” Newsweek 144.24 (2004): 38. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Discusses the movie “Hotel Rwanda,” the true story of Rusesabagina, a Rwandan who sheltered thousands during the Rwandan genocide. How the film questions the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping forces; Failure of the U.N. in Rwanda; Description of areas where the U.N. could improve.

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